Research

 

History of Image Manipulation

The concept of manipulating images has been around for nearly 200 years.
It dates back to around the 1860’s when in the same century Niecpe produced
the world’s first photograph (Anon, 2009).

Doctoring photographs has been used for many different reasons.

One of the reasons for image altering was for political propaganda
and political photographs.

In 2012 this iconic image of Abraham Lincoln was found to be manipulated and is a classic example of how photographic manipulation has been developed over time (Moran.L, 2012).

It was found that Lincoln’s head had been cleverly put onto the body of Southern politician John Calhoun’s.

 

lincoln121

 

Anon, 2009, Ethics In Photo Editing, [online], available at http://ethicsinediting.wordpress.com/2009/04/01/photo-manipulation-through-history-a-timeline/ accesses 19/03/14

Moran. L, 2012, Ye olde photoshoppe: The first ever altered images (including two pictures stitched together to make iconic portrait of Abraham Lincoln), [online] available at
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2107109/Iconic-Abraham-Lincoln-portrait-revealed-TWO-pictures-stitched-together.html Accessed 19/03/2014

1942, Mussolini on a horse. It was instructed that the horse
handler was to be removed from the image to make Mussolini
look more heroic (Anon, 2009)

photo_manipulatoin_05

 

In 1917, two cousins from England claimed they say fairies in
the garden. 16 year old Elsie Wright and Frances Griffiths
aged 10 they took pictures of them (Lodriguss. J, nd).

FAIRIES

 

In 2011, an advert for Lancome Paris, featuring Julia Roberts was banned in the UK by the ASA – the Advertising Standards Authority. The reason behind this banning was because it was felt that the amount of Photoshop used on Roberts to advertise the product was misleading stating the flawless skin was not real and too good to be true (Zhang. M, 2011).

lancomeroberts

 

Anon, 2009, Ethics In Photo Editing, [online], available at http://ethicsinediting.wordpress.com/2009/04/01/photo-manipulation-through-history-a-timeline/ accessed19/03/14

Lodriguss. J, nd, The Ethics of Digital Manipulation, [online] available at http://www.astropix.com/HTML/J_DIGIT/ETHICS.HTM accessed 19/03/14

Zhang. M, 2011, Julia Roberts Makeup Ads Banned in UK for Too Much Photoshop, Peta Pixel, [online], available athttp://petapixel.com/2011/07/27/julia-roberts-makeup-ads-banned-in-uk-for-too-much-photoshop/ accessed 19/03/14

Why is image manipulation used in fashion advertising?

“The fashion industry is notorious for it’s heavy-handed use of digital manipulation software, and has fallen under criticism for introducing ‘false images’ into the mainstream and passing them off as real. Industry big-wigs are continually blamed for deliberately misleading consumers by creating false impressions with their products, and more severely, for perpetuating unhealthy body images by ‘slimming down’ their models and concealing their imperfections” (Young. C, 2010)

Young. C, 2010, Digital Manipulation in the Fashion Industry, The Quad, [online] available at
http://buquad.com/2010/10/24/digital-manipulation-in-the-fashion-industry/ Accessed 20/03/14

Why is image manipulation used in fashion advertising

These adverts were taken from a Ralph Lauren fashion poster.
It is clear to see in the left image that the use of Photoshop has
been over used. These two images are of the same model and
Ralph Lauren had this to say

“After further investigation, we have learned that we are responsible
for the poor imaging and retouching that resulted in a very distorted
image of a woman’s body. We have addressed the problem and going
forward will take every precaution to ensure that the caliber of our artwork
represents our brand appropriately” (Lauren. R, 2009).

ralph

Beauty refined, 2014, Photoshopping: Altering Images and Our Minds, [online article] available at
http://www.beautyredefined.net/photoshopping-altering-images-and-our-minds/ Accessed 20/03/14

Why is image manipulation used in fashion advertising?

One of the strategies used to back up and normalize the distorted
idea of the “Average” is the media and advertising’s representation
of how women being extremely thin, much thinner than the national
average is that the models or actresses used with Photoshopping to
make then fit the idea that the ideal thinness and beauty is only
achievable through digital manipulation.

The general idea of feminine beauty is a tanned, healthily slender, with no ugly lumps and bumps and cellulite. This unhealthy idea is consistently represented across all forms of media, along with the ideas of having perfect skin, thanks to the magic of digital manipulation.

This idea is almost always taken as the fashion industry standard and is greatly defended by magazine editors and media makers all over the world (Beauty Refined, 2014).

Beauty refined, 2014, Photoshopping: Altering Images and Our Minds, [online article] available at
http://www.beautyredefined.net/photoshopping-altering-images-and-our-minds/ Accessed 20/03/14

Models of Diversity

Models of Diversity is a non- profit organisation which aims to promote the use of a different range of models in the fashion industry. The organisation was founded by
Angel Sinclair, a former model herself. She founded Models of Diversity after appearing
on Gok’s Miss Naked Beauty in 2008.

She decided to set up the organisation because after appearing on Gok Wan’s Channel 4 show, she saw that there were many beautiful women of different sizes, races and abilities and saw that these types of beautiful women were not represented in the mainstream fashion industry.

logo-mod328X200

AngelSinclair_Younique3

Angel Sinclair

Anon, 2010, Welcome to Models of Diversity, [online] available at http://www.modelsofdiversity.org/

 

Examples of what Models of Diversity is all about.

150870_107848892620489_100001861352571_62533_5202325_n

Untitled-712

Models-of-Diversity_image

Anon, 2010, Gallery, [online] available at http://www.modelsofdiversity.org/

Debenhams – Previous attempts of equality in fashion adverts.

article-2304574-191CD2D1000005DC-84_634x739

Debenhams has a history of defying conventional fashion promotion, In April 2013, unveiled its amazing new diversity campaign featuring the likes of Paralympian amputee Stefanie Reid.

London.B, 2013, Debenhams unveils size 16 mannequins that reflect the average woman’s body – and says other retailers should follow suit, Daily Mail online
[online] available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2488259/Debenhams-unveils-size-16-mannequins-reflect-average-woman.html accessed 26/03/14

Debenhams – Previous attempts of equality in fashion adverts.

Debenhams were one of the first clothes stores which have made a step forward in the promotion
of body confidence by permanently introducing size 16 mannequins.
The new mannequins, which were trialled by the high street store three years ago to model underwear, will be used at its shop in Oxford Street, London.

article-2488259-193B9CE600000578-462_306x423

This is an image of two mannequins, one size 16
and the other a size 10 wearing the same dress.

London.B, 2013, Debenhams unveils size 16 mannequins that reflect the average woman’s body – and says other retailers should follow suit, Daily Mail online, [online] available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2488259/Debenhams-unveils-size-16-mannequins-reflect-average-woman.html accessed 26/03/2014

Dove Campaign- Campaign details and Results

 

The campaign was to widen the stereotypical views of beauty by making women of all
Shapes and sizes feel beautiful every day.

Campaign
To help start a societal change in definition and discussion of beauty.

Meduims used- a website, billboards, events, workshops, viral marketing.

The models used were diverse in age, shape and size.

The first phase- TV ads, print ads, website, workshops and films them the public will
give feedback on the models appearance.

The second phase- print and outdoor advertising featuring six everyday women to
challenge body ideals in the media.

The campaign first launched in England in September in 2004.
The study conducted validated the hypothesis that the definition of beauty had become
limiting and unattainable.
Results

The campaign already reached 2 million people through its media channels.

The campaign returned $3 for every $1 spent.

Shown on 25 major TV channels.

Featured in more than 800 articles.

Dove sales increased 700%

Global sales surpassed $1billion

Dove and Ogilvy won awards for this campaign.

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Publuc Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was started after Dove conducted a global study.
The study found that

12% of women are very satisfied with the physical
attractiveness

2% of women describe themselves as beautiful

68% of women strongly agree that the media sets an unrealistic standard
of beauty.

75% of women wished the media did a better job in portraying the diversity
of women’s physical attractiveness, including size and shape across all ages.

Unilever, who owns Dove, has several competitors in the market which include brands
Such as Procter and Gamble, Este Lauder, L O’real and Avon

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Publuc Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

Fashion Magazine Circulation Figures

Name of magazine : total circ – % change year on year – sold copies

Glamour : 470,138 – % change y/y: -11.3 – Sold copies: 469,555

New! : 439,326 – % change y/y: -14.9 – Sold copies: 439,326

Stylist : 431,266 – % change y/y: 1.1 – Sold copies: 0

Closer : 430,918 – % change y/y: -6.3 – Sold copies: 430,568

OK! Magazine : 355,969 – % change y/y: -24.8 – Sold copies: 351,020

Woman & Home : 353,731 – % change y/y: -4.5 – Sold copies: 347,653

Cosmopolitan : 353,413 – % change y/y: -8.6 – Sold copies: 353,097

HELLO! : 352,985 – % change y/y: -14.6 – Sold copies: 319,397

Heat : 290,003 – % change y/y: -11.2 – Sold copies: 282,325

Now : 259,318 – % change y/y: -16.1 – Sold copies: 259,318

Marie Claire : 255,021 – % change y/y: 1.7 – Sold copies: 218,327

Look : 250,071 – % change y/y: -16.7 – Sold copies: 230,062

Ponsford, D, 2012, Full breakdown of magazine sales for first half of 2012, Journalism Today, [online], available athttp://www.pressgazette.co.uk/node/49860 accessed 06/04/14

Target Audience

A typical person who the campaign will be aimed at is:

Typically a woman aged between 18+  who have an interest in modelling but feel they won’t make it.

A woman with an interest in fashion and beauty.

A woman who read magazines and who look at fashion blogs.

A woman who does not believe in airbrushing in adverts.

A woman who believes that fashion models should come in a range of sizes, ages, races and abilities.

A woman who tend to shop online for clothes (along with seeing the adverts
which appear on those sites).

These women tend to be stylish and want to know the latest fashion trends.

Women of all different shapes, sizes, ages, races and abilities who want to
see someone like themselves representing the realistic majority of the public.

Public attitude to diverse models- survey conduction.

I conducted a survey online to gather my own research into what people’s thoughts and feelings were to the concept of diverse models being used on catwalks. I asked a series of questions and got several responses which in turn gave me a clearer picture of what people thought about diversity in modelling for fashion.
The questions that I asked were:
What’s your gender?
What is your age?
Do you agree with airbrushing in fashion adverts?
Do you think that a range of fashion models in different sizes, ethnicities and abilities should be used in mainstream adverts?
Do you believe that unnaturally skinny models affect self esteem?
Do you feel comfortable in you own body when you see photo shopped fashion adverts?

Here are the results

question1 question 2 question 3 question4 question 5 question 6

Stewart Dodai, NY Fashion Week Report: Model Racial Diversity Has Not Improved., 2014, [online article] available athttp://jezebel.com/new-york-fashion-week-diversity-talks-but-white-faces-1522416724/1524553069/+dodai accessed 14/2/14

Negative Aspects of Diverse Models

The idea of using a diverse range of models in mainstream fashion adverts and catwalks has also had some negative
attention too. Although having a diverse range of models has so far mostly been seen as a good thing there have been
some negative ideas that have emerged. As with everything positive, there will be some occasions where they are seen
as negative.

One view came from the Style blogger and girlfriend to Scott “the Sartorialist” Schuman Garance Doré.

“It’s not such a good thing to show plus-size because it’s not really physically healthy and not always flattering to fashion.”
(Odell. A, 2010)

Odell. A, 2010, Garance Doré Skeptical of the ‘Unhealthy’ and ‘Not Always Flattering’ Plus-Size–Model Trend, The Cut, [online article] available at
http://nymag.com/thecut/2010/04/garance_dor_skeptical_of_the_u.html Accessed 06/04/2014

Dove Campaign- Where, Why and results

The campaign first launched in England in September in 2004.
The study conducted validated the hypothesis that the definition of beauty had become
limiting and unattainable.
Results

The campaign already reached 2 million people through its media channels.

The campaign returned $3 for every $1 spent.

Shown on 25 major TV channels.

Featured in more than 800 articles.

Dove sales increased 700%

Global sales surpassed $1billion

Dove and Ogilvy won awards for this campaign.

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Public Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

Here is the full campaign creative journey for the Dove real Beauty Campaign

“The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty
Case Study by Olivia Falcione and Laura Henderson

SITUATION ANALYSIS:
The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was started after Dove conducted a global study on beauty. The study called, The Real Truth About Beauty: A World Report confirmed a hypothesis that the definition for beauty had narrowed and impossible to attain. Dove found that:
§ Just 12 % of women are very satisfied with their physical attractiveness
§ Only 2 % of women describe themselves as beautiful
§ 68 % strongly agree that the media sets an unrealistic standard of beauty
§ 75 % wish the media did a better job in portraying the diversity of women’s physical attractiveness, including size and shape, across all ages

When the economy has a downturn women stop shopping, but for higher end items such as shoes and purses, not beauty items. Marketing in the beauty industry is mainly geared toward women for good reason. Women compose over 50 percent of the United States population and they influence or buy 80 percent of products sold. These are influential numbers for any company.

Dove is the number one cleansing brand and is growing at more than 25 percent yearly. They are doing a sixth-month rollout of their hair care line. Unilever prides itself on advertising, announcing in 2002 a multi-million dollar advertising alliance with AOL Time Warner. Unilever expanded a co-marketing deal with Bally’s Total Fitness that makes Dove the exclusive sponsor and provider of personal hygiene products at almost 400 Bally’s fitness centers across the U.S and Canada. It is a crowded market and Dove wanted to separate themselves from the other companies and brands to generate higher sales.
Unilevers’ competitors include Proctor and Gamble, Estee Lauder, L’Oreal, Avon and others. All of these companies are experiencing growth and healthy sales. Proctor and Gamble is strengthening their leadership in Health Care and Beauty, two of 2003’s largest growing sectors. Proctor and Gamble has 5 billion dollar health care and beauty brands and they acquired a sixth in 2003. Meaning health care and beauty sales will account for half of the company’s sales and profits. In 2002, P&G reported net sales were $10.80 billion, up 11 percent versus 2001 sales.
Estee Lauder has recorded more than 45 consecutive years of annual sales increases. Estee Lauder’s net sales of all products sold in 130 countries reached $5.12 billion in 2003 this includes all labels-Estee Lauder, Clinique, Origins, Prescriptives and Aramis.
L’Oreal is the world’s largest beauty products company. In the past ten years the brand has shifted from 75 percent of sales in Europe to exporting brands around the world. Sales through June 2002 were €7.4 billion up from the first half of 2001 with €4 billion in consumer products and €1.8 billion in luxury products. L’Oreal aims for its 18th consecutive year of double-digit growth year-end 2002.
Avon is the world’s largest direct seller and sixth largest global beauty company with $6 billion in annual sales. Avon sells to women in 143 countries through 3.5 million independent sales representatives. Net sales have increased by 4 percent from 1997 to 2001 and this is expected to continue into 2003. Avon is starting a new line for younger consumers “mark”. It will launch in the fall of 2003 in the U.S. and in the second quarter of 2004 globally.
Beauty companies are doing well leading up to Dove’s launch of its Campaign for Real Beauty in 2004. The number of women in the United States and the influence they have on purchasing products make them the primary audience for consumer companies like Unilever to market towards. This combined with the results of women’s issues with the media’s portrayal of women create and ideal stage to launch a campaign focused on real women.

RESEARCH:
For years, the beauty industry and media have been constantly reminding women of the ideal body standards that have been set in today’s society. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, launched in 2004, was to support Dove’s mission of making women of all shapes and sizes feel beautiful every day, while widening stereotypical views of beauty. The campaign was inspired by a global study called “The Real Truth About Beauty: A Global Report.” As a company within the beauty industry, Dove wanted to have a better understanding of the issues regarding women and beauty by developing this study. Dove asked Dr. Nancy Etcoff, Harvard University professor and author of “Survival of the Prettiest,” and Dr. Susie Orbach, London School of Economics, visiting professor and author of “Fat is a Feminist Issue,” to help develop this global report. The study used quantitative data collected from an international study of 3,200 women from ten different countries between February 27, 2004 and March 26, 2004. Through the study, Dove aimed to explore the relationship women have with beauty, determine how women define beauty, learn the level of satisfaction with women’s beauty and the impact beauty has on the well-being of women. Through two key findings of the study, Dove was able to validate that the narrow definition of beauty is having a significant impact on the self-esteem of women today. The two findings are:
· Only 2% of women around the world consider themselves beautiful
· 81% of women in the United States strongly agree that “the media and advertising set an unrealistic standard of beauty that most women can’t ever achieve.”
In addition to these statistics, the study uncovered that only 5% of the women felt comfortable describing themselves as pretty and 9% felt comfortable describing themselves as attractive. When it came to body image and weight, women from all countries proved to be unsatisfied with themselves. The women of Japan had the highest levels of dissatisfaction with their body weight at 59%, followed by Brazil (37%), United Kingdom (36%), United States (36%), Argentina (27%) and the Netherlands (25%).
The study asked women about a wide range of issues regarding the mass media and pop culture. From all countries, cultures, ages, ethnicities and race, the women felt that there is a narrow definition of beauty. Specifically within today’s society, women acknowledged how they felt more pressure from the beauty standards set by the present mass media. Sixty-three percent strongly agreed that women today are expected to be more attractive than their mother’s generation.
The women surveyed believed that they are surrounded by unrealistic beauty images that are unattainable. The majority (76%) wished female beauty would be portrayed in the media as being made up more than just physical attractiveness. Also, seventy-five percent wished the media did a better job of portraying women of diverse physical attractiveness, including age, shape and size.
Based on these findings, Dove created The Campaign for Real Beauty to address the issues that were revealed in the study. Since the campaign has been launched, Dove has conducted numerous global and national studies. In 2005, Dove conducted the study, “Beyond Stereotypes: Rebuilding the Foundation of Beauty Beliefs.” This study collected information from 3,300 girls and women, between the ages of 15-64 from 10 different countries. This study was designed to explore self-esteem and the impact of beauty standards on both the lives of girls and women. The study showed that of the women and girls surveyed, 90% wanted to change at least one aspect of their physical appearance (with body weight ranking the highest). In addition, Dove found that 67% of all women withdrew from life-engaging activities due to feeling badly about their looks.
In 2006, Dove conducted the global report “Beauty Comes of Age.” The study surveyed a total of 1,450 women, aged 50-64, from 9 different countries. This report was done to help reveal the stereotypes associated with beauty and aging. Dove found that 91% of the women surveyed felt that the media and advertising need to do a better job of representing realistic images of women over 50. A vast majority of the women (97%) believed that society is less accepting of appearance considerations for women over 50 compared to their younger counterparts, especially when focused on the body.
In 2008, Dove commissioned the national report, “Real Girls, Real Pressure: A National Report on the State of Self-Esteem.” Girls ages 8-17 were surveyed and were asked questions based on the three areas of self-acceptance, confidence and emotional orientation. Scores were assigned based on how the girls rated themselves in the three areas. Girls were classified into three groups of high, average and low self-esteem, based on their individual scores. The report exposed that in the United States, seven in ten girls believe they are not good enough or do not measure up in some way, including their looks, academic performance and relationships with family and friends and 62% of all girls feel insecure or not sure of themselves. In comparing girls’ level of self esteem and their feelings on their own beauty, 71% of girls with low self-esteem felt their appearance did not measure up, including not feeling pretty enough, thin enough or stylish or trendy enough. This was compared to 29% of girls with high self-esteem.

EXECUTION:
What
Dove created The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty to help start a societal change and an expansion of the definition and discussion of beauty. The campaign supports Dove’s mission “to make more women feel beautiful everyday by widening stereotypical views of beauty.” The campaign uses advertising, a Web site, billboards, events, workshops, viral marketing and a Self-Esteem fund in Dove’s effort to create a global discussion about beauty with women all over the world. Rather than using professional models, the campaign stands by Dove’s mission in using “real” women of various ages, shapes and sizes to promote discussion and debate about the narrow beauty standards and images set in today’s society.

When/How
The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was communicated to the public through a variety of print and television advertisements, a Web site, workshops and films. The campaign that launched in September 2004 began with an advertising campaign that featured women whose appearance strayed from the stereotypical beauty standards that are commonly seen in the media. Dove wanted to get “real” feedback by having the ads ask viewers to judge the women’s appearances. Viewers were asked to cast their votes on Dove’s Web site, campaignforrealbeatuy.com. The second phase of the campaign launched in June 2005 was print and outdoor advertisements that featured six everyday women who had real bodies and real curves. This phase was created to challenge the ideal body type standards set by the media. In February 2007, the third phase of the campaign was introduced with Dove using advertisements that targeted women 50 years and older. Annie Leibovitz, a world renowned photographer, was the artist behind the print and television advertisements, which celebrated the beauty in older women. Currently, the campaign focuses on young girls and self-esteem. For this part of the campaign Dove created self-esteem workshops and online self-esteem tools for mothers and daughters. In addition, Dove has created online films such as “Evolution,” “Onslaught” and “True Colors” which was a highly regarded commercial during the 2006 Super Bowl. Many of the tools used for the campaign are funded by the Dove Self-Esteem Fund. In the US, the fund supports Uniquely ME!, a program of the Girl Scouts of the United States, which aims to build confidence and self-esteem in young girls.

Where/Why
The campaign launched in England in September 2004. The Dove campaign was inspired by the study “The Real Truth about Beauty: A Global Report.” According to the Campaign for Real Beauty Mission, “the study validated the hypothesis that the definition of beauty had become limiting and unattainable.” The study showed that the narrow beauty standards were having a significant impact on the self-esteem of women. The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was created to address this issue by attempting to widen the definition of beauty.

EVALUATION:
The results of this campaign were overwhelming from the consumers and the media. The goal was to reach 5 million young people with the Self-Esteem Fund by 2010 and according to their Web site, they have reached 2 million already.
The campaign returned $3 for every $1 spent. Dove’s page on Unilever’s Web site says that the current campaign has been shown on over 25 major TV channels and in more than 800 articles in opinion leading newspapers as well as in popular women’s magazines. In the first six months of the campaign, sales of Dove’s firming products increased 700 percent in Europe and in the United States, sales for the products in the advertisements increased 600 percent in the first two months of the campaign. In 2004, the first year of the campaign, global sales surpassed $1 billion, exceeding company expectations.
Dove’s public relations company built in news coverage for Asia with the Dove “models” appearing in 618 different newspaper clippings with a circulation of 139 million. By the end of 2005, sales in the Asian-Pacific market increased from 19 percent to 26 percent.
In the United States, the campaign got free advertising space from media coverage on national television shows reaching 30 million daytime television viewers. These shows included The Oprah Winfrey Show, which included the campaign everyday for a week, The Ellen DeGeneres Show, The Today Show, The View and CNN.
“Evolution” the viral video and the most famous execution of the campaign to date had global impact. The viral has been viewed more than 15 million times online and seen by more than 300 million people globally in various channels of distribution, including news coverage, by the estimation of Ogilvy Chairman-CEO Shelly Lazarus.
Dove and Ogilvy have won awards for this campaign. These include the two Grand Prix Cannes Advertising Awards in 2007. This is an unprecedented number of awards to win. “Evolution” the viral won Film Grand Prix and a Cyber Grand Prix. Dove won a silver IPA for effectiveness with the campaign. In 2006 it was awarded a Grand EFFIE, which honors the most significant achievement in marketing communications effectiveness.

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Public Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

Here is the full campaign creative journey for the Dove real Beauty Campaign

Dove Real Beauty Campaign

Dove-2 dove

The campaign was to widen the stereotypical views of beauty by making women of all
Shapes and sizes feel beautiful every day.
Campaign
To help start a societal change in definition and discussion of beauty.
Meduims used- a website, billboards, events, workshops, viral marketing.
The models used were diverse in age, shape and size.
The first phase- TV ads, print ads, website, workshops and films them the public will
give feedback on the models appearance.
The second phase- print and outdoor advertising featuring six everyday women to
challenge body ideals in the media (Henderson. L, 2009)

Anon, 2004, Dove Beauty Campaign, [online] avaiable at https://www.google.co.uk/search?q=dove+beauty+campain+2004&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=1yZMU9aiHcTA accessed 14/04.2014

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Publuc Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

An Example of a successful campaign An example of a successful campaign where the use of diverse models has increased sales in a company is the 2004 Dove Campaign for real beauty.

It came about in 2004 when market research was undertaken on how women felt about themselves in relation to fashion and beauty advertising. The research found that only 2% of women actually thought of themselves as beautiful. The campaign’s aimwas to make beauty be seen as a source of confidence and not anxiety. The campaign was created by Ogilvy and Mather Brazil (Henderson. L, 2009)

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Publuc Relation problems and Cases, [online]

available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was started after Dove conducted a global study.
The study found that:

12% of women are very satisfied with the physical
attractiveness

2% of women describe themselves as beautiful

68% of women strongly agree that the media sets an unrealistic standard
of beauty.

75% of women wished the media did a better job in portraying the diversity
of women’s physical attractiveness, including size and shape across all ages.

Unilever, who owns Dove, has several competitors in the market which include brands such as Procter and Gamble, Este Lauder, L O’real and Avon.

Falcione. O, Henderson. L, 2009, The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty, Publuc Relation problems and Cases, [online]
available at http://psucomm473.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/dove-campaign-for-real-beauty.html accessed 06/04/2014

There is proof that putting money into a campaign gets a very good return.

real-women

Other Campaigns

article-2304574-191CD2D1000005DC-84_634x739article-2488259-193B9CE600000578-462_306x423

Debenhams – Previous attempts of equality in fashion adverts.
Debenhams were one of the first clothes stores which have made a step forward in the promotion of body confidence by permanently introducing size 16 mannequins.The new mannequins, which were trialled by the high street store three years ago to model underwear, will be used at its shop in Oxford Street, London.
This is an image of two mannequins, one size 16 and the other a size 10 wearing the same dress.
Debenhams has a history of defying conventional fashion promotion, In April 2013, unveiled its amazing new diversity campaign featuring the likes of Paralympian amputee Stefanie Reid.

London.B, 2013, Debenhams unveils size 16 mannequins that reflect the average woman’s body – and says other retailers should follow suit, Daily Mail online
[online] available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2488259/Debenhams-unveils-size-16-mannequins-reflect-average-woman.html accessed 26/03/14

London.B, 2013, Debenhams unveils size 16 mannequins that reflect the average woman’s body – and says other retailers should follow suit, Daily Mail online
[online] available at http://www.dailymail.co.uk/femail/article-2488259/Debenhams-unveils-size-16-mannequins-reflect-average-woman.html accessed 26/03/2014

Ryan Air's recently banned advert

Anon, nd, banned ryan air advert,  bbc.co.uk advert, [online] available at http://www.pinterest.com/pin/244531454737398664/ accessed 6/5/14

Eating disorder recovery. So true.

Casey.R, nd, image, [online] available at http://media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/originals/63/0b/81/630b81995d8807e7fa0c95915eafb95c.jpg accessed 6/5/14

Selfies

Lancome’s “Project #bareselfie”

Seemingly taking a page in women’s confidence-building from Dove, Lancome recently encouraged women to take selfies of themselves, sans makeup, and share it with the tag #bareselfie. The campaign encouraged women to be proud of their skin and stop hiding behind makeup and filters. Of course, the campaign happens to also be a nice tie-in with the company’s DreamTone product, which purports to correct blemishes and even out skin tones without blush or powder”

Read more at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36168.asp#IZ1bzKeEKmaPkoE6.99

Why selfies promote positive body images

Build a positive self-image during TODAY’s ‘Love Your Selfie, Reclaiming Beauty’ week

TODAY loved joining viewers for “Love Your Selfie” week in February, and now we’re doing it again with the second installment of the special series.

On Sunday, April 27, TODAY will launch the week-long series “Love Your Selfie, Reclaiming Beauty.” On each day that week, TODAY will explore different topics revolving around society’s obsession with body image, and offer constructive steps for creating a positive attitude when it comes to our bodies.

TODAY

TODAY

On Sunday and Monday, TODAY hosts will share what thoughts they have about themselves when looking in the mirror, and discuss how we can reverse negative thoughts when seeing our own reflection.

On Tuesday, TODAY will discuss the reality of seeing “real” bodies in natural shapes and sizes within the fashion and media world,

Teenagers will share what it means to “Love Your Selfie” on Wednesday, and discuss what it’s like to tackle body image in today’s digital age. TODAY is also reaching out to teenagers throughout the country to create a PSA about what it means to “Love Your Selfie.” The PSAs will be featured in an upcoming “The More You Know” campaign.

On Thursday, TODAY will see how those who have gone through cancer treatments are finding beauty and self-acceptance on the inside and out.

On Friday, TODAY will discuss how we can feel more comfortable in our own skin.

And on Saturday, new mom Jenna Wolfe will examine what it’s like to deal with body changes after having a baby.

Broadway star Sutton Foster, actress Sophia Bush and other special guests will join TODAY throughout the “Love Your Selfie, Reclaiming Beauty” week to share their perspectives on body image. Additionally, TODAY.com will have tips for boosting confidence, original essays and galleries of selfies from our viewers.

Please join in by sending us your photos on social media, using the hashtag #LoveYourSelfie—we may show your photo on air.

TODAY’s ‘Love Your Selfie’ series explores our body image obsessions

TODAY

Feb. 20, 2014 at 12:28 PM ET

TODAY anchors

TODAY
Natalie, Savannah, Matt and Al want to help you learn to Love Your Selfie.

Every day too many of us wake up unhappy with the way we look. TODAY wants to change that!

With the “Love Your Selfie” series, kicking off Saturday, Feb. 22, TODAY will examine the obsession with body image and how we can join together to feel more positive about ourselves. TODAY’s anchors will take an honest and revealing look at how they feel about their own body image.

Savannah Guthrie selfie

TODAY
Savannah selfie.

According to a new TODAY/AOL Ideal to Real Body Image Survey, to be released Monday, February 24, 67 percent of adult women worry about their appearance regularly—more often than finances, health, relationships or professional success.

In this special series, Matt Lauer, Savannah Guthrie, Al Roker, Natalie Morales, Willie Geist, Kathie Lee Gifford, Hoda Kotb, Carson Daly, Tamron Hall, Lester Holt, Erica Hill, Jenna Wolfe and Dylan Dreyer will peel back the layers of their own insecurities, and will share the stories of people who are transforming the traditional definitions of beauty.

Willie Geist

TODAY
Willie Geist selfie

On Monday, singer Jordin Sparks shares her experience of a week without makeup. On Tuesday Hoda Kotb talks to women over 40 about the challenges of aging and actresses Jacqueline Bisset and Jane Seymour open up about being a mature woman in the spotlight.

Next up, on Wednesday, actress Cameron Diaz and Maria Shriver talk about how we feed our body and the habits we pass down through the ages.

On Thursday, supermodel Naomi Campbell talks about photo-shopping and airbrushing in fashion magazines and the messages this sends to regular people.

Al Roker selfie

TODAY
Al Roker selfie

On the Friday finale, correspondent Jenna Bush Hagerspends time with the famously fit First Lady Michelle Obama.

TODAY invites viewers to join the conversation and celebrate every shape, size, and age by sharing selfies on social media using #LoveYourSelfie or by uploading images here.

Submitted photos may be featured throughout TODAY’s coverage. As part of the Love Your Selfie series,TODAY.com will feature galleries of selfies and original essays.

Women ‘suffer poor self-esteem due to airbrushing in advertising’

Women are suffering poor self-esteem because of advertising campaigns which use airbrushing techniques to portray ”unattainable perfection”, a survey claimed today.

Women 'suffer poor self-esteem due to airbrushing in advertising'

Airbrushing techniques can be used by photographers to alter a model’s appearance by, for example, making their breasts look bigger or their waists smaller.

Images of models which have been digitally altered are causing more than two thirds of women to suffer low confidence about their bodies, the study by beauty brand Dove has found.

The company questioned over 1,000 women who largely said the beauty industry advertising campaigns are having a negative impact on their lives.

Airbrushing techniques can be used by photographers to alter a model’s appearance by, for example, making their breasts look bigger or their waists smaller.

Some celebrities are thought to have undergone airbrushing for glossy magazine shoots.

A total of 96 per cent of women questioned for the Dove research said they felt the models used in beauty advertising are not a realistic representation of women today.

Over 40 per cent said the advertising made them feel self-conscious about their appearance, 28 per cent said they were left feeling inadequate and 20 per cent said they were less confident in their daily lives as a result of such images.

The Dove research follows a similar study undertaken five years ago when the brand first launched its Campaign for Real Beauty.

The research also revealed an increase in the number of female consumers who want to see ”real women” used in beauty advertising – rising from 74 per cent in 2004 up to 95 per cent in 2009.

Author and psychotherapist Dr Susie Orbach said on behalf of the campaign: ”On a daily basis women are bombarded with impossibly perfect images created by artifice, which they will always aspire towards, but can rarely achieve because these images depend on serious transformation by photographers.

”The Dove Campaign for Real Beauty was conceived to address this problem by using real women of varying shapes, sizes, races and ages to mirror the diversity of beauty in society.”

The women surveyed for Dove are split as to whether they could tell the difference between images which have been airbrushed, with 58 per cent thinking they could and 42 per cent admitting they could not.

The study also found that the overwhelming majority – 96 per cent – of women would like advertisers to be honest about the extent to which they airbrush or digitally manipulate images.

Dove senior brand manager Katie Adams added: ”The Campaign for Real Beauty has continued to challenge the narrow definition of beauty. Our research shows that women want to see more realistic representations of beauty in the media and advertising, so it is no wonder that the campaign has continued to resonate with millions of women worldwide.’

Anon, nd, Women suffer poor self esteem due to airbrushing in advertising, [online], available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/6662958/Women-suffer-poor-self-esteem-due-to-airbrushing-in-advertising.html accessed 6/5/14

The best social media campaigns that leveraged selfies

“In “that’s kind of silly” news, Oxford Dictionaries declared 2013 the year of the “selfie.” Then, only a few months later, Ellen broke Twitter with her celeb-studded Oscars selfie (snapped with a Galaxy Note, to Samsung’s “delight“). Go ahead and hate on the now ubiquitous social media self-photo all you want. But its popularity isn’t a huge surprise. Admit it: You’ve taken them. You’ve posted them. The fact that we’ve now given the phenomenon such an adorable little moniker has only fueled these tendencies.

The best social media campaigns that leveraged selfies

Of course, marketers are never far behind a good pop culture trend, and nothing signifies this more than the selfie. Turkish Airlines took the selfie to new heights with its celebrity-driven campaign featuring an epic game of oneupmanship between Lionel Messi and Kobe Bryant. This was obviously a high-budget and high-profile marketing manifestation of the selfie. However, plenty of other brands got in on the action — and continue to do so.

So which brands have most successfully and uniquely socialized the selfie? Let’s take a look

Purina’s doggie selfies

What’s better than a selfie? Well, a selfie of a dog, of course. Kudos to the folks at Purina Pro Plan for realizing that. They partnered with the Twitter Mirror to set up a dog-level iPad backstage at the Westminster Dog Show. Throughout the competition, pristine pups stopped by to snap and tweet their selfies.

Dove’s “Selfie” short film

At some point, we’ll all get sick of having to include Dove on “best of” campaign lists. But until then, this list wouldn’t be complete without this waterworks-inducing marketing titan. In the case of Dove’s recent “Selfie” short film, the brand flips the idea of the selfie as a tool of vanity to position it as a tool for building confidence in women, which continues to be at the heart of the brand’s strategy.

Read more at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36166.asp#FbCWovq57Q3hfsjg.99

Wired U.K.’s selfie cover

After Wired embraced the celebrity selfie (of BuzzFeed’s Jonah Peretti) on the cover of its January edition, in February, the magazine decided to also embrace the every-man selfie. It invited readers to download the free Wired app, grab a copy of the February 2014 sample magazine, snap a selfie to replace the magazine’s cover image, and share it via social with the #wiredgoesviral hashtag. At the time of this writing, Wired U.K. planned to feature a selection of the best covers on Wired.co.uk, with a single selfie being published in the next issue of the magazine.

Read more at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36167.asp#RxA1fcvZgqOYUxoX.99

BBDO Guerrero and Droga5: Selfless selfies

Sick of the selfie vanity? So were these agencies. After Typhoon Haiyan struck the Philippines, Manila agency BBDO Guerrero launched the #unselfie, encouraging people to raise awareness of the need for UNICEF donations by taking faceless photos of themselves holding up the charity’s details.

Similarly, in December, Droga5 Europe launched the #selflessselfie T-shirt. It encouraged people to buy a T-shirt with the #selflessselfie logo on it (all proceeds benefitting ActionAid’s efforts in the Philippines), take a selfie wearing the shirt, and post the photo to social media to spread awareness

Read more at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36168.asp#IZ1bzKeEKmaPkoE6.99

1888 Hotel

Meet “the world’s first Instagram hotel.” Yep, that’s a thing.

The 1888 Hotel in Sydney loves Instagrammers. Users with more than 10,000 followers can redeem a free night at the hotel, and the hotel encourages visitors to take the “Pyrmont Insta-Walk,” a 45-minute, photo-snapping stroll around the hotel and nearby harbor. But to top it all off, the hotel has installed a “selfie space” in its lobby, where guests can take pictures, tag #1888Hotel, and see their images appear on the screens near reception.

Read more at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36168.asp#IZ1bzKeEKmaPkoE6.99

Hubbard. D, 2014, The best social media campaigns that leveraged selfies, [online] available at http://www.imediaconnection.com/content/36168.asp#singleview accessed 28/04/2014

What selfie campaigns are used for?

Dove’s new ‘Selfie’ ad campaign: Mums and their teenage daughters reveal body image worries

Dove real beauty Selfie ad campaign

“Dove’s new ad campaign, which encourages mothers and their teenage daughters to redefine the concept of beauty, is entitled ‘Selfie’ after the new social trend. The seven-minute documentary film debuted at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival earlier this week.

The ad follows a group of teenage girls and their mothers from Massachusetts and asks them to take photos of themselves highlighting the features they dislike the most. The selfies are then blown up and placed in a ‘#BeautyIs’ selfie photo gallery where the public can post notes about what they find beautiful about each woman.

“I want my mom to know she’s beautiful and that she doesn’t have to change for anyone,” says one teenager.

The documentary was based on the assertion that “often, mothers pass on their insecurities to their children.” For this reason, the ad campaign attempts to empower women to love their bodies just as they are, instead of seeking approval from others.

“I think my mom’s insecurities affect me a lot. When you hear her talk about her insecurities, you start to focus on your own,” another teenager said.

In the film, the teens discuss the features they dislike about themselves. One explains that she’s uncomfortable with her big hair, so she consciously leaves it out of her photos. Another says that she tries to make her arms look “narrow” by covering them up.

These attempts to disguise our imperfections in order to fit in to the mainstream idea of beauty tell us that selfies are not a “natural” reflection of ourselves. With this in mind, the film sets out to demonstrate that women need to “redefine their own beauty and see that insecurity often lies beneath the personal snapshots.”

Tracey Clark, an author and blogger from Babble.com, understands the importance of this message and says she made watching this documentary with her daughters a priority. Clark told ABC News, “I really want my girls to know that in every phase of their lives, they are beautiful for who they are. And it’s important for me to internalise that for myself.”

Academy Award-winning filmmaker Cynthia Wade, who directed the short film, told CTV News: “The way women are defining beauty today is changing dramatically, andsocial media has much to do with the change.

“Now, we have the ability to photograph the beauty we see in our friends and ourselves. When we share these diverse images on our social networks, we are taking personal ownership and truly redefining beauty.”

Anon, 2014, doves new selfie campaign, [online] available athttp://www.parentdish.co.uk/2014/01/26/dove-new-selfie-ad-campaign-mums-and-their-teenage-daughters-reveal-body-image-angst/ accessed 29/04/2014

Research- Previous uses of mirrors and reflections in adverts and List of Active and ongoing engagement with the campaign.

bmw_m3_coupe_the_bmw_light_wall_reflection

Anon, nd, Ads of the World, [online] available at http://adsoftheworld.com/media/ambient/bmw_m3_coupe_the_light_wall_reflection accessed 8/5/2014

mcdonalds_night

Anon, nd, Ads of the World, [online] available at http://adsoftheworld.com/media/ambient/bmw_m3_coupe_the_light_wall_reflection accessed 8/5/2014

6e1fa110fdbf10fd6cfcf6dd39d0ac8b

Anon, nd, Ads of the World, [online] available at http://adsoftheworld.com/media/ambient/bmw_m3_coupe_the_light_wall_reflection accessed 8/5/2014

c3f174bb2501278e9e4cf6ce13938b5e

Anon, nd, Ads of the World, [online] available at http://adsoftheworld.com/media/ambient/bmw_m3_coupe_the_light_wall_reflection accessed 8/5/2014

I have done some research into adverts which use mirrors.

I am going to use a mirror on one of my adverts because I want it to be part of the interactive side of my campaign.

1. The target audience will view the adshel posters and the billboards and take in the information.

2.If they then go one to read the body copy at the bottom of the adshels they may be persuaded to interact with the campaign by taking selfies of themselves and sending them to Facebook or Twitter to have a chance at the modelling competition.

3. Further engagement will come from the contest details which will be situated on the Models of Diversity website and Facebook and Twitter to check out the competition by viewing the other selfies.

4.  There will be a possibility for more engagement with the campaign because I have decided to include a pop up photography studio which will be in towns and cities across the UK where the public can have an on- the – spot professional photograph taken at the cost of £5.00. This price may seem a little steep for just one photograph but with it you will also receive a selection of items with the photograph on it. These items will include a keyring, a mug and a fridge magnet. All of these items will have the photograph on them and will also include a statement from the public member about what they think makes them beautiful.

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